CBD

Cannabidiol – Recent Advances Raphael Mechoulam*a), Maximilian Petersa), Eric Murillo-Rodriguezb), and Lum”r O. Hanusˇ a) CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY – Vol. 4 (2007)

 

Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor WA Devane, L Hanus, A Breuer, RG Pertwee, LA Stevenson, G Griffin, D Gibson, A Mandelbaum, A Etinger, R Mechoulam Science 18 Dec 1992

 

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Franjo Grotenhermen, Dr. med.1 and Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Prof. Dr. med.*,2 Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012 Jul; 109(29-30)

 

Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol – A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies Kerstin Iffland (B.Sc. Biomedicine, M.Sc. Neuroscience) and Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen, nova-Institut (www.nova-institut.eu) Hürth (Germany), October 2016 European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA)

 

The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin R G Pertwee 1,* Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215. Published online 2007

 

An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies Kerstin Iffland* and Franjo Grotenhermen Published online 2017 Jun 1. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017; 2(1): 139–154

 

Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent Mateus Machado Bergamaschi, Regina Helena Costa Queiroz1, Antonio Waldo Zuardi2 and, José Alexandre S. Crippa*,2 Current Drug Safety, 2011, 6, 237-249

 

Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Prakash Nagarkatti, Rupal Pandey, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Venkatesh L Hegde & Mitzi Nagarkatti. Future Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 1, No 7.

 

Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ethan B Russo. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb; 4(1): 245–259.

 

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. Tamás Bíró Balázs I.Tóth György Haskó Ralf Paus Pál Pacher. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Volume 30, Issue 8, August 2009, Pages 411-420

 

Differential role of cannabinoids in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Nicole Glodde Mira Jakobs Tobias Bald Thomas Tüting Evelyn Gaffal. Life Sciences Volume 138, 1 October 2015, Pages 35-40

 

The role of cannabinoids in dermatology. Jessica S. Mounessa BS Julia A. Siegel BA,Cory A.DunnickMD Robert P.DellavalleMD, PhD, MSPH. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

Volume 77, Issue 1, July 2017, Pages 188-190

 

Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. James Callaway, Ursula Schwab, Ilkka Harvima et al. Journal of Dermatological Treatment Volume 16, 2005 – Issue 2

 

Anticancer activity of anandamide in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Adinolfi B, Romanini A, Vanni A, Martinotti E, Chicca A, Fogli S, Nieri P. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 15;718(1-3):154-9.

 

Cannabidiol as an Emergent Therapeutic Strategy for Lessening the Impact of Inflammation on Oxidative Stress. Booz GW. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Sep 1;51(5):1054-61.

 

Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Wilkinson JD, Williamson EM. J Dermatol Sci. 2007 Feb;45(2):87-92.

 

Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Oláh ATóth BIBorbíró ISugawara KSzöllõsi AGCzifra GPál BAmbrus LKloepper JCamera ELudovici MPicardo MVoets TZouboulis CCPaus RBíró T. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep;124(9):3713-24.

 

Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids. Pucci M, Rapino C, Di Francesco A, Dainese E, D’Addario C, Maccarrone M. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;170(3):581-91.

 

Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. Bisogno, T., et al., British Journal of Pharmacology, 2001. 134(4): p. 845-852.

 

Anticonvulsant Effects of the (–) and (+)Isomers of Cannabidiol and Their Dimethylheptyl Homologs. Leite, J., et al., Vol. 24. 1982. 141-6.

 

Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: chemical aspects. Mechoulam, R. and L. Hanus, Chem Phys Lipids, 2002. 121(1-2): p. 35-43.

 

Cannabidiol Claims and Misconceptions. Russo, E.B., Trends in pharmacological sciences, 2017. 38(3): p. 198-201.

 

Analysis of Cannabinoids and Their Metabolites in Human Urine. Wei, B., L. Wang, and B.C. Blount, Anal Chem, 2015. 87(20): p. 10183-7.
Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Evan C. RosenbergRichard W. TsienBenjamin J. Whalley, and Orrin Devinsky. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct; 12(4): 747–768.
TREATMENT OF PAIN:

Cannabinoids in Pain Management and Palliative Medicine. Winfried Häuser, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Lukas Radbruch, Frank Petzke. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 627–34

Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain? R.J. Miller, R.E. Miller. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2017.

 

RHEUMATOLOGY:

Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases (fibromyalgia syndrome, back pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). M.-A. Fitzcharles,  C. Baerwald · J. Ablin · W. Häuser. Schwerpunkt. 2016

Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Holly T. Philpott, Melissa O’Brien, Jason J. McDougall. Research paper pain. 2017

 

NEURODEGENARATION:

In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Georgia Watt  and Tim Karl. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017

 

The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson’s disease. Neife Aparecida Guinaim Santos, Nádia Maria Martins et al. Toxicology in Vitro 30 (2015) 231–240

 

Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Orrin Devinsky, Maria Roberta Cilio, Helen Cross, et al. HHS Public Access. 2014

 

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Orrin Devinsky, Eric Marsh, Daniel Friedman. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 270–78.

CBG

Cannabigerol behaves as a partial agonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors; Gauson LA, Stevenson LA, Thomas A, et al. 17th Annual Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Saint-Sauveur, Quebec, Canada: International Cannabinoid Research Society; 2007. p. 206.

Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol. Pagano E, Montanaro V, Di Girolamo A, Pistone A, Altieri V, Zjawiony JK, Izzo AA, Capasso R. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Jun;10(6):1009-12.

Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington’s disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice. Valdeolivas S, Navarrete C, Cantarero I, Bellido ML, Muñoz E, Sagredo O. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Jan;12(1):185-99.

Cannabigerol is a novel, well-tolerated appetite stimulant in pre-satiated rats. Brierley DI, Samuels J, Duncan M, Whalley BJ, Williams CM. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Oct;233(19-20):3603-13.

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Borrelli F, Fasolino I, Romano B, Capasso R, Maiello F, Coppola D, Orlando P, Battista G, Pagano E, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 May 1;85(9):1306-16.

Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. El-Alfy AT, Ivey K, Robinson K, Ahmed S, Radwan M, Slade D, Khan I, ElSohly M, Ross S. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jun; 95(4):434-42.

A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol. Colasanti BK. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1990 Winter;6(4):259-69.

Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews. Rock EM, Goodwin JM, Limebeer CL, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Psychopharmacology (Berl).2011 Jun;215(3):505-12

TERPENI

John McPartland, Ethan Budd Russo. Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts? J Cannabis Therapeutics. 1. 103-132. 10.1300/J175v01n03_08. January 2001

 

Ethan B Russo. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug; 163(7): 1344–1364.

 

Andre CM, Hausman JF, Guerriero G (2016). Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front Plant Sci. 7: 19

 

MYRCENE

 

Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. Rao, V. S. N., A. M. S. Menezes, and G. S. B. Viana. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 42.12 (1990): 877-878.

 

Neurobehavioral study of the effect of betamyrcene on rodents. Paumgartten, F. J. Braz. J. Med. Biol (1991).

 

Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. Lorenzetti, Berenice B., et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 34.1 (1991): 43-48.

 

LINALOOL

 

Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils. Herman A, Tambor K, Herman A. Curr Microbiol. 2016 72(2):165-72.

 

Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. Park SN, Lim YK, Freire MO, Cho E, Jin D, Kook JK. Anaerobe. 2012 18(3):369-72

 

Linalool Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV2 Microglia Cells by Activating Nrf2. Li Y, Lv O, Zhou F, Li Q, Wu Z, Zheng Y. Neurochem Res. 2015 40(7):1520-5

 

Effects of inhaled Linalool in anxiety, social interaction and aggressive behavior in mice. Linck VM, da Silva AL, Figueiró M, Caramão EB, Moreno PR, Elisabetsky E.  Phytomedicine. 2010 17(8-9):679-83

 

TERPINOLENE

 

The sedative effect of inhaled terpinolene in mice and its structure-activity relationships. Ito K, Ito M.  J Nat Med. 2013 Oct; 67(4):833-7

 

Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation. Macedo EM, Santos WC, Sousa BP Neto, Lopes EM, Piauilino CA, Cunha FV, Sousa DP, Oliveira FA, Almeida FR. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2016 Jun 20; 49(7)

 

Anticancer and antioxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells. Aydin E, Türkez H, Taşdemir S. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2013 Sep; 64(3):415-24

 

B CARYOPHYLLENE

 

Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, et al. (July 2008). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (26): 9099–104.

 

Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception. Katsuyama S.; Mizoguchi H.; Kuwahata H.; et al. (2013). European Journal of Pain. 17 (5): 664–675.

 

B-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Shreesh Ojha, Hayate Javed, Sheikh Azimullah, M. Emdadul Haque. Mol Cell Biochem.2016

 

β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice. Bahi Amine; Al Mansouri Shamma; Al Memari Elyazia; Al Ameri Mouza; Nurulain Syed M.; Ojha Shreesh (2014). Physiology & Behavior. 135: 119–124.

 

The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna. Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Iqbal MA, Ahamed MB, Ezzat MO, Majid AS, Majid AM. Molecules. 2015 Jun 26;20(7):11808-29.

 

The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation. Calleja MA, Vieites JM, Montero-Meléndez T, Torres MI, Faus MJ, Gil A, Suárez A. Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 14;109(3):394-401

 

Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats.  Vijayalaxmi A, Vasudha Bakshi, Nazia Begum, Kowmudi V, Naveen Kumar Y, Yogesh Reddy. Journal of Bone Reports & Recommendations. 2015

 

ALPHA-PINENE

 

Effects of olfactory stimulation by α-pinene on autonomic nervous activity. Harumi IkeiChorong SongYoshifumi Miyazaki. Journal of Wood Science. December 2016, Volume 62, Issue 6, pp 568–572

 

Fragrant environment with α-pinene decreases tumor growth in mice. Kusuhara M, Urakami K, Masuda Y, Zangiacomi V, Ishii H, Tai S, Maruyama K, Yamaguchi K. Biomed Res. 2012 Feb;33(1):57-61.

 

Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Kim DS, Lee HJ, Jeon YD, Han YH, Kee JY, Kim HJ, Shin HJ, Kang J, Lee BS, Kim SH, Kim SJ, Park SH, Choi BM, Park SJ, Um JY, Hong SH. Am J Chin Med. 2015;43(4):731-42.

 

LIMONENE

 

Antimicrobial activity of limonene [2003]. Rancic, A., Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovic, Belgrade (Serbia) Sokovic, M., Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovic, Belgrade (Serbia) Van Griensven, L., Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands) Vukojevic, J., University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Biology. Institute of Botany et al.

 

D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications. Sun J. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Sep;12(3):259-64.

 

Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes. Laura Espina, Tilahun K. Gelaw, Sílvia de Lamo-Castellví,  Rafael Pagán, and Diego García-Gonzalo. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56769.

 

Aroma of innovation in health and disease. A.J. Vieira, F.P. Beserra, M.C. Souza, B.M. Totti, A.L. Rozza. Chemico-Biological Interactions (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2018.02.007.

Bibliography:

 

NEROLIDOL

 

Antimicrobial activity of nerolidol and its derivatives against airborne microbes and further biological activities. Krist S, Banovac D, Tabanca N, Wedge DE, Gochev VK, Wanner J, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Jan;10(1):143-8.

Nerolidol exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity: involvement of the GABAergic system and proinflammatory cytokines. Fonsêca DV, Salgado PR, de Carvalho FL, Salvadori MG, Penha AR. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Feb;30(1):14-22.

Assessment of anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice. Goel RK, Kaur D, Pahwa P. Indian J Pharmacol. 2016 Jul-Aug;48(4):450-452.

Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol. Denise C. Arruda, Fabio Luiz D’Alexandri, Alejandro M. Katzin, and Silvia R. B. Uliana. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 May; 49(5): 1679–1687.

Antioxidant Effects of Nerolidol in Mice Hippocampus After Open Field Test. José Damasceno Nogueira Neto Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida et al. Neurochemical Research. September 2013, Volume 38, Issue 9, pp 1861–1870.

Nerolidol: A Sesquiterpene Alcohol with Multi-Faceted Pharmacological and Biological Activities. Weng-Keong Chan, Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Kok-Gan Chan OrcID, Learn-Han Lee and Bey-Hing Goh. Molecules 2016, 21(5), 529.

Antimalarial use of volatile oil from leaves of Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Lopes NP, Kato MJ, Andrade EH, Maia JG, Yoshida M, Planchart AR et al. Warb. by Waiapi Amazon Indians. J Ethnopharmacol 1999 67: 313–319.

 

GERANIOL

 

Geraniol — A review of a commercially important fragrance material. W.Chen A.M.Viljoen. South African Journal of Botany Volume 76, Issue 4, October 2010, Pages 643-651.

Investigating the antifungal activity and mechanism(s) of geraniol against Candida albicans strains. Leite MC, de Brito Bezerra AP, de Sousa JP, de Oliveira Lima E. Med Mycol. 2015 Apr;53(3):275-84.

Antifungal activity of geraniol and citronellol, two monoterpenes alcohols, against Trichophyton rubrum involves inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Pereira Fde O, Mendes JM, Lima IO, Mota KS, Oliveira WA, Lima Ede O. Pharm Biol. 2015 Feb;53(2):228-34.

Anti-Candida activity of geraniol involves disruption of cell membrane integrity and function. Sharma Y, Khan LA, Manzoor N. J Mycol Med. 2016 Sep;26(3):244-54.

Antibacterial Activity of Carvacrol, Citral, and Geraniol against Salmonella typhimurium in Culture Medium and on Fish Cubes. Kyoungsu Kim, Maurice R Marshall et al. Journal of Food Science 60(6):1364 – 1368 · August 2006.

 

Oral administration of geraniol ameliorates acute experimental murine colitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling. Medicherla K, Sahu BD, Kuncha M, Kumar JM, Sudhakar G, Sistla R. Food Funct. 2015 Sep;6(9):2984-95.

Neuroprotective effect of geraniol and curcumin in an acrylamide model of neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster: relevance to neuropathy. Prasad SN, Muralidhara. J Insect Physiol. 2014 Jan;60:7-16.

Protective effect of Geraniol on the transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease. Siddique YH, Naz F, Jyoti S, Ali F, Fatima A, Rahul, Khanam S. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Apr; 43:225-31.

Protective effects of geraniol (a monoterpene) in a diabetic neuropathy rat model: attenuation of behavioral impairments and biochemical perturbations. Prasad SN, Muralidhara. J Neurosci Res. 2014 Sep;92(9):1205-16.

Geraniol Induces Antinociceptive Effect in Mice Evaluated in Behavioural and Electrophysiological Models. La Rocca V, da Fonsêca DV, Silva-Alves KS. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Jan;120(1):22-29.

Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes. Santos PL, Araújo AA, Quintans JS et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:502454.

 

DELTA 3 CARENE

 

Low concentration of 3‐carene stimulates the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 subclone 4 cells. Jong‐Geun Jeong  Young Sup Kim  Yong Ki Min  Seong Hwan Kim. Phytotherapy research. 2007.

 

BETA PINENE

 

Antinociceptive properties of 1,8-Cineole and beta-pinene, from the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves, in rodents. Liapi C, Anifandis G, Chinou I, Kourounakis AP, Theodosopoulos S, Galanopoulou P. Planta Med. 2007 Oct;73(12):1247-54.

Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R, Reyes-Chilpa R. Life Sci. 2015 May 1;128:24-9.

Biological activities of α-pinene and β-pinene enantiomers. Rivas da Silva AC, Lopes PM, Barros de Azevedo MM, Costa DC, Alviano CS, Alviano DS. Molecules. 2012 May 25.

 

TERPINEOL

 

α-terpineol reduces mechanical hypernociception and inflammatory response. De Oliveira MG, Marques RB, de Santana MF, Santos AB et al. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012 Aug;111(2):120-5.

α-Terpineol reduces nociceptive behavior in mice. Quintans-Júnior LJ, Oliveira MG, Santana MF, Santana MT. Pharm Biol. 2011 Jun;49(6):583-6.

α-Terpineol reduces cancer pain via modulation of oxidative stress and inhibition of iNOS. Gouveia DN, Costa JS, Oliveira MA, Rabelo TK et al. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun 11;105:652-661.

Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. Soon-Nang Park,  Yun Kyong Lim et al. Anaerobe 18(3):369-72 · April 2012.

Cardiovascular effects induced by α‐terpineol in hypertensive rats. Carla Kelly Barroso Sabino, Edson Santos Ferreira‐Filho et al. Flavour and fragrance journal; Volume28, Issue5 September 2013 Pages 333-339.

Characterization of α-Terpineol as an Anti-inflammatory Component of Orange Juice by in Vitro Studies Using Oral Buccal Cells. Sandra Held, Peter Schieberle, and Veronika Somoza. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (20), pp 8040–8046.

 

HUMULENE

 

Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation. Rogerio AP, Andrade EL, Leite DF, Figueiredo CP, Calixto JB. Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;158(4):1074-87.

Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. Fernandes ES, Passos GF, Medeiros R, da Cunha FM, Ferreira J, Campos MM, Pianowski LF, Calixto JB. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 27;569(3):228-36.

Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action. Legault J, Dahl W, Debiton E, Pichette A, Madelmont JC. Planta Med. 2003 May;69(5):402-7.

Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel. Legault J, Pichette A. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;59(12):1643-7.

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in mice. Chaves JS, Leal PC, Pianowisky L, Calixto JB. Planta Med. 2008 Nov;74(14):1678-83.

 

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