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Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol – A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies Kerstin Iffland (B.Sc. Biomedicine, M.Sc. Neuroscience) and Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen, nova-Institut (www.nova-institut.eu) Hürth (Germany), October 2016 European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA)


The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin R G Pertwee 1,* Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215. Published online 2007


An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies Kerstin Iffland* and Franjo Grotenhermen Published online 2017 Jun 1. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017; 2(1): 139–154


Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent Mateus Machado Bergamaschi, Regina Helena Costa Queiroz1, Antonio Waldo Zuardi2 and, José Alexandre S. Crippa*,2 Current Drug Safety, 2011, 6, 237-249


Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Prakash Nagarkatti, Rupal Pandey, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Venkatesh L Hegde & Mitzi Nagarkatti. Future Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 1, No 7.


Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ethan B Russo. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb; 4(1): 245–259.


The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. Tamás Bíró Balázs I.Tóth György Haskó Ralf Paus Pál Pacher. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Volume 30, Issue 8, August 2009, Pages 411-420


Differential role of cannabinoids in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Nicole Glodde Mira Jakobs Tobias Bald Thomas Tüting Evelyn Gaffal. Life Sciences Volume 138, 1 October 2015, Pages 35-40


The role of cannabinoids in dermatology. Jessica S. Mounessa BS Julia A. Siegel BA,Cory A.DunnickMD Robert P.DellavalleMD, PhD, MSPH. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

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Cannabinoids in Pain Management and Palliative Medicine. Winfried Häuser, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Lukas Radbruch, Frank Petzke. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 627–34

Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain? R.J. Miller, R.E. Miller. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2017.



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Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Holly T. Philpott, Melissa O’Brien, Jason J. McDougall. Research paper pain. 2017



In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Georgia Watt  and Tim Karl. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017


The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson’s disease. Neife Aparecida Guinaim Santos, Nádia Maria Martins et al. Toxicology in Vitro 30 (2015) 231–240


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Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol. Pagano E, Montanaro V, Di Girolamo A, Pistone A, Altieri V, Zjawiony JK, Izzo AA, Capasso R. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Jun;10(6):1009-12.

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Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Borrelli F, Fasolino I, Romano B, Capasso R, Maiello F, Coppola D, Orlando P, Battista G, Pagano E, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 May 1;85(9):1306-16.

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Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews. Rock EM, Goodwin JM, Limebeer CL, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Psychopharmacology (Berl).2011 Jun;215(3):505-12


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Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils. Herman A, Tambor K, Herman A. Curr Microbiol. 2016 72(2):165-72.


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B-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Shreesh Ojha, Hayate Javed, Sheikh Azimullah, M. Emdadul Haque. Mol Cell Biochem.2016


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Nerolidol exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity: involvement of the GABAergic system and proinflammatory cytokines. Fonsêca DV, Salgado PR, de Carvalho FL, Salvadori MG, Penha AR. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Feb;30(1):14-22.

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